Q21. Write a shortnote on IPv6 addressing.
Ans. An IPv6 address is a 128 bit addressing scheme and can have either of the following formats: (i) Normal( Pure IPv6 format) or (ii) Dual(IPv6 plus IPv4 formats).
The IPv6 format was created to enable the trillions of new IP addresses required to connect not only an ever-greater number of computing devices but also the rapidly expanding numbers of items with embedded connectivity. In the Internet of Things (IoT) scenario, objects, animals and people are provided with unique identifiers and the ability to automatically transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction. IPv6 expands the available address space sufficiently to enable anything conceivable to have an IP address.
Q22. Explain Domain name system.
Ans. It is the system which assigns names to some computers(web servers) and maintains a database of these names and corresponding IP addresses, which is known as Domain Name Resolution. The URL of the website is known as its domain name. The domain name is unique name of a website. A domain name generally contains following parts: (i) www (ii) name describing the website’s purpose (iii) TLD( top level domain) such as .com, .net, .org, .edu, .in etc. Examples of some domain are www.amazon.com, www.wayn.com.cn, www.dce.edu, www.cbse.nic.in etc.
Q23. Explain diffferent types of basic network tools.
Ans. • PING:- It is a command which determines the connectivity between two hosts. (i.e. whether the remote machine can receive the test packet and reply. It is determined by finding how much time it takes to get response from the remote machine(website, server etc).
• TRACEROUTE:- This command is used to trace the path , a signal takes from your computer to the destination computer.
• NSLOOKUP:- This command is used to resolve DNS name resolution problems. It displays the name and IP address of your computer’s default DNS server. It also displays a small prompt where you ca type the domain name or IP address and find out whether DNS server can identify the given domain or IP address.
• IPCONFIG Command:- It displays the detailed information about the network you are connected to. Information such as DNS servers, MAC address along with other helpful information is displayed.
• WHOIS :- It is used to get information on a specific domain name such as who registered it, when was it registered, and when the domain will expire etc.
• Speed Test:- It is a utility used to determine the download and upload speed of your network connection. This is done through speedtest.net’s site utility.
Q24. What do you mean by network congestion? How it can be controlled?
Ans. Network congestion is a specific condition in a network when more data packets are coming to network devices than they can handle and process at a time. Network congestion is analogous to the congestion on roads and can be handled similarly. To control the road’s congestion problem, often a technique called metering is used that controls the incoming traffic( number of vehicles entering a road) on roads by employing measures like traffic-signals or rerouting the traffic.
The metering technique is used to control network congestion in the following way :-
(i) It ensures that sender does not overflow the network and it is one by controlling the flow of data packets.
(ii) It ensures the routers along the path work as per their capacity to handle network traffic and do not become overloaded by rerouting the data packets or delaying the transmission or informaing the senders about the network congestion.
Q25. What measures do wireless networks employ to avoid collision?
Ans. Switches and routers can reduce collisions by checking if a transmission line is idle or “in use” before transmitting data. A common method is CSMA/CD or “Carrier-sense multiple access/collision detect with collision avoidance” which allows devices to take turns using signal carrier line. While it is possible to reduce collisions, they cannot be completely avoided. For example, if two systems determine a line is idle and then transmit data at exactly the same time, a collision may occur. This can be resolved by retransmitting the data after a random delay.
Q26. What do you understand by parity checking?
Ans. Parity checking is a method of error detection that can check 1 or 2 bit errors. In this check a parity bit is added to the end of a string of binary code to inidcate whether the number of bits in the string wiht the value 1 is even or odd. Data is transmitted along wiht parity bit. The receiver recalculates the parity bit by extracting it from the data received and then compares it wiht the received parity bit. if they match then the data is considered to be correct and accepted.
Q27. Write a brief note on TCP/IP suite.
Ans. It ensures reliable communication to deliver the packets. It also fragments and reassembles messages using a sequencing function so that they can be reassembled in correct order. The TCP/IP consist of
TCP :- It uses a set of rules to exchange messages wiht other Internet points at the information packet level.
IP:- It uses a setof rules to send and receive messages at the internet address level.
Q28. What are the components of a network?
Ans. A network comprises of several components along with their functionalities that contribute to its smooth functioning. A computer network comprises of :
Sender:- A device or a computer that sends the data.
Receiver:- A device or a computer that receives the data.
Message:- Message is the information to be communicated. It may be text, image, audio or video.
Transmission medium:- A transmission medium is a physical path through which the data flows from sender to receiver. A cable or wire or Radiowaves can be the medium.
Protocol:- A set of rules that governs data transmission. It represents the communication methods which are to be followed by the sending and receiving devices.
Q29. Differentiate between private and public cloud.
Ans. Public Cloud:- It is defined as a public or common cloud service provided to multiple users on a network. In a public cloud resources such as memory, hardware devices and network devices are shared by all the clients(called subscribers) and are called “tenants”.
Examples : Google Drive, Microsoft Onedrive, icloud etc.
Private Cloud:- It is virtual private interface provided by an individual or owned by an organization. In this cloud all resources are dedicated solely to an organistaion. For example VPN( Virtual Private Network) is a private cloud that manages the security of the data during communication in the cloud environment.
Q30. What makes a protocol have a higher bandwidth?
Ans. In networking , bandwidth refers to the transmission capacity of a computer or a communication channel. It is stated in megabits per second(Mbps). Higher frequencies offer higher bandwidth. It means they can handle more users, more data at the same time. Factors responsible for higher bandwidth are
• Digitization of the signal over generations of mobile communications
• The telephone, computer and entertainment industries have converged into one. i.e. a smartophone can act as a telephone, music player, gaming machine, email terminal, mobile TV and run high speed applications etc. with wireless connectivity to the internet and high bandwidth,