CBSE Class 12 : Python

Revision tour

CBSE Class 12 : Functions


User defined functions


Recursion Examples

CBSE Class 12: Inbuilt Functions

String Inbuilt Functions
Math Inbuilt Functions
Date and Time Inbuilt Functions
Random Module

CBSE Class 12 : Data File Handling

Data File Handling

Character by Character reading
Word by word reading
Line by line reading

CBSE Class 12 : Data Structures

Introduction to Data Structures
Stacks and its Applications
Implementation of Stacks
Queue and its Applications
Implementation of Queue

CBSE Class 12 : Interface Python With SQL

Class 12 Interface Python With SQL

Example : 1 Student Record management

Example :2 Bank Record Management

CBSE Class 12 : Web Development With Django

Introduction To Django

Example 1: To Test Django

Example 2: To Display Welcome Message

Example 3: To Display Data in Table Format

CBSE Class : Communication And Network Concepts

Full Forms

Computer Networks

Wired and Wireless Networks

New Technologies

Network Devices

Network Stack

IP Address

Transmission Control Protocol

Basic Network Tools and Applications

Switching techniques


Network topologies

Society Law and Ethics

Society Law and Ethics

Digital Property Rights



Cyber Forensics

Technology And Society

Gender and Disability issues


CBSE Class 12 : Sample Papers

Class 12 Python Sample Paper 1
Class 12 Python Sample Paper 1 (Solution)
Class 12 Python Sample Paper 2
Class 12 Python Sample Paper 2 (Solution)

CBSE Class 12 : Practical File

Practical File Programs

CBSE Class 12 :  Python Project

Student management System

Student Management System 2

Banking System

MarkSheet Management System

Stock Management System

Telephone Directory

Digital Directory

Class 12 Networking: Transmission media

Wired and Wireless Networks

Transmission media:

In network communications, a transmission medium is a physical connection or an interface between the transmitter and the receiver.

There are two major categories of transmission media, namely
* guided and
* wireless (or unguided).

1. Guided Media /Wired Network/ Media

It is also referred to as Wired or Bounded transmission media. Signals being transmitted are directed and confined in a narrow pathway by using physical links.

• High Speed
• Secure
• Used for comparatively shorter distances

There are 3 major types of Guided Media:

The medium used to connect different devices in a network is called as Transmission media or channel. Networks/ channels can be guided(wired) or unguided(wireless).
Trans medium can be classified as

Wired or Guided media are also known as physical or conducted media. These media use various types of cables e.g. Twisted Pair Cable, Coaxial Cable and Fibre Optic Cable for transmitting data over various networks. Wired networks , also called Ethernet networks, are most common type of local area netwok(LAN) technology. A wired network is a collection of two or more computers , printers and other devices linked by Ethernet cables. Ethernet is the fastest wired network protocol with connection speed of 10 Mbps to 100 Mbps or higher.

Basic communications media types

  • Copper
    • unshielded twisted pair (utp)
    • shielded twisted pair (stp)
    • coaxial cable (thinnet, thicknet)
  • Fiber optic
    • single-mode
    • multi-mode
  • Infrared
  • Radio & microwave

Twisted Pair Cable

  • These cables consist of two insulated copper wires twisted around each other in a double helix.
  • Twisting of wires reduces crosstalk which is bleeding of a signal from one wire to another.


  • Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)
  • Shielded Twisted Pair (STP

STP offers greater protection from interference and crosstalk due to shielding.

But it is heavier and costlier than UTP.

USE 1. In local telephone communication

  1. For digital data transmission over short distances upto 1 km


  • Easy to install and maintain
  • Simple
  • Inexpensive
  • Low weight
  • Suitable for small (Local) Networks


  • Not suitable for long distance due to high attenuation.
  • Low bandwidth support.
  • Low Speed

Coaxial cable

  • Coaxial cable consists of a solid copper wire core surrounded by a plastic cladding shielded in a wire mesh.
  • Shield prevents the noise by redirecting it to ground.


Coaxial cable comes in two sizes which are called thinnet and thicknet.

  • Thicknet : segment length upto 500 m
  • Thinnet  : segment length upto 185 m


In TV channel communication


  • Better than twisted wire cable.
  • Popular for TV networks.
  • Offers higher bandwidth & Speed


  • Expensive than twisted wires.
  • Not compatible with twisted wire cable.

Optical Fibres

  • Thin strands of glass or glass like material designed to carry light from one source to another.
  • Source converts (Modulates) the data signal into light using LED (Light Emitting Diodes) or LASER diodes and send it over the Optical fiber.

It consists of three parts:

  1. The core: glass or plastic through which the light travels.
  2. The cladding : covers the core and reflects light back to the core
  3. Protective coating : protects the fiber


  • Not affected by any kind of noise.
  • High transmission capacity
  • Speed of Light
  • Suitable for broadband communication


  • Installation requires care.
  • Connecting two Optical fibers is difficult.
  • Optical fibers are more difficult to solder
  • Most expensive


Microwaves are transmitted from the transmitters placed at very high towers to the receivers at a long distance.

Microwaves are transmitted in line of sight fashion, and also propagated through the surfaces.


  • Maintenance easy than cables.
  • Suitable when cable can not be used.


  • Repeaters are required for long distance communication.
  • Less Bandwidth available


Geostationary satellites are placed around 36000 KM away from the earth’s surface. In satellite communication transmitting station transmits the signals to the satellite. (It is called up-linking). After receiving the signals (microwaves) it amplifies them and transmit back to earth in whole visibility area.

Receiving stations at different places can receive these signals. (It is called down-linking).


  • Area coverage is too large


  • High investment