CBSE Class 12 : Python

Revision tour

CBSE Class 12 : Functions


User defined functions


Recursion Examples

CBSE Class 12: Inbuilt Functions

String Inbuilt Functions
Math Inbuilt Functions
Date and Time Inbuilt Functions
Random Module

CBSE Class 12 : Data File Handling

Data File Handling

Character by Character reading
Word by word reading
Line by line reading

CBSE Class 12 : Data Structures

Introduction to Data Structures
Stacks and its Applications
Implementation of Stacks
Queue and its Applications
Implementation of Queue

CBSE Class 12 : Interface Python With SQL

Class 12 Interface Python With SQL

Example : 1 Student Record management

Example :2 Bank Record Management

CBSE Class 12 : Web Development With Django

Introduction To Django

Example 1: To Test Django

Example 2: To Display Welcome Message

Example 3: To Display Data in Table Format

CBSE Class : Communication And Network Concepts

Full Forms

Computer Networks

Wired and Wireless Networks

New Technologies

Network Devices

Network Stack

IP Address

Transmission Control Protocol

Basic Network Tools and Applications

Switching techniques


Network topologies

Society Law and Ethics

Society Law and Ethics

Digital Property Rights



Cyber Forensics

Technology And Society

Gender and Disability issues


CBSE Class 12 : Sample Papers

Class 12 Python Sample Paper 1
Class 12 Python Sample Paper 1 (Solution)
Class 12 Python Sample Paper 2
Class 12 Python Sample Paper 2 (Solution)

CBSE Class 12 : Practical File

Practical File Programs

CBSE Class 12 :  Python Project

Student management System

Student Management System 2

Banking System

MarkSheet Management System

Stock Management System

Telephone Directory

Digital Directory

Switching techniques

Switching techniques

Switching techniques are used for transmitting data across networks.

Different types are :

  • Circuit Switching

  • Message Switching

  • Packet Switching

Circuit Switching

  • Circuit switching is the transmission technology that has been used since the first communication networks in the nineteenth century.
  • First the complete physical connection between two computers is established and then the data are transmitted from the source computer to the destination.
  • When a call is placed the switching equipment within the system seeks out a physical copper path all the way from the sender to the receiver.
  • It is must to setup an end-to-end connection between computers before any data can be sent.
  • The circuit is terminated when the connection is closed.
  • In circuit switching, resources remain allocated during the full length of a communication, after a circuit is established and until the circuit is terminated and the allocated resources are freed.

Message Switching

  • In this the source computer sends data or the message to the switching circuit which stores the data in its buffer.
  • Then using any free link to the switching circuit the data is send to the switching circuit.
  • Entire message is sent to the destination. It reaches through different intermediate nodes following the “store and forward” approach.
  • No dedicated connection is required.

Packet Switching

  • Conceived in the 1960’s, packet switching is a more recent technology than circuit switching.
  • Packet switching introduces the idea of cutting data i.e. at the source entire message is broken in smaller pieces called packets which are transmitted over a network without any resource being allocated.
  • Then each packet is transmitted and each packet may follow any rout available and at destination packets may reach in random order.
  • If no data is available at the sender at some point during a communication, then no packet is transmitted over the network and no resources are wasted.
  • At the destination when all packets are received they are merged to form the original message.
  • In packet switching all the packets of fixed size are stored in main memory.